1. a payment or reward for goods or services or for losses sustained or inconvenience caused
2. the paying or rewarding of somebody for goods or services or for losses sustained or inconvenience caused
1. a word or phrase frequently used, or a belief strongly held, by members of a group that is usually regarded by outsiders as meaningless, unimportant, or misguided
2. a saying that is widely used or a belief that is widely held, especially one that interferes with somebody’s ability to speak or think about things without preconception
3. a unique pronunciation, word, behavior, or practice used to distinguish one group of people from another and to identify individuals as either members of the group or outsiders
1. in philosophy, the science or study of phenomena, things as they are perceived, as opposed to the study of being, the nature of things as they are
2. the philosophical investigation and description of conscious experience in all its varieties without reference to the question of whether what is experienced is objectively real
1. the science and methodology of interpreting texts, especially the books of the Bible
2. the branch of theology that is concerned with explaining or interpreting religious concepts, theories, and principles
sui generis adj
unique, or in a class of its own
a figure of speech in which the word for part of something is used to mean the whole, for example, “sail” for “boat,” or vice versa
1. two apparently correct and reasonable statements or facts that do not agree and therefore produce a contradictory and illogical conclusion
2. a contradiction between two laws, principles, or authorities
Directed or tending to a definite end; purposive.
1. having the same form or appearance as another organism or the same organism at a different stage in its life cycle
2. used to describe mathematical sets with a one-to-one correspondence so that an operation such as addition or multiplication in one produces the same result as the analogous operation in the other
2. A circular prison with cells arranged around a central well, from which inmates can be observed at all times. Also in extended use.
The design was first proposed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) in 1787. A scheme for a penitentiary on these lines was accepted by Parliament in 1794, and a site at Millbank, London, was chosen, but in the event the new penitentiary (which opened in 1816) was not built to Bentham’s plan. Among later prisons constructed on the panopticon principle, the Stateville Penitentiary at Joliet, Illinois, is still in use.